Sample Probability Problem


Suppose we are given a set consisting of different elements, and a map

on that set, which maps every item to either or .

The fraction of items that are mapped to is given by

Given a subset of size define the sample proportion

For all the subsets of size find the expectation value and the variation of the random variable .


Let us first compute

Let us define the set of all subsets of size

where defines the powerset of , and the size of the set is

For example, if then

Now the expectation value and variance that we are required to compute are given in terms of:

To compute the sums that appear in the expressions above we will use arguments of symmetry to show that the terms on the left and right hand side will be the same up to an integer constant

where is a constant.

Counting the total number of terms on the left and the right it follows that


and counting the the terms on the left and the right

Since is either or it can be shown that

Finally, we obtain simplified expressions for the expectations

Thus, we obtain the following final result

It can be seen that this agrees with the Central Limit Theorem in the limit